Horse training is a set of activities designed to make the horse more docile while still preserving and developing his natural traits. It is a muscle workout that strengthens the complete body by providing the components and balancing the horse to build harmony in his motions.

New horses should be worked on a regular basis, first by men on foot and then by men mounted on quiet horses. The activity should be done while walking and is intended to calm and strengthen the horse.

When guiding a juvenile horse-mounted, the side on which he is led should be changed often to avoid giving the neck a false set.

Taking care of the new horses when exercising

The young horse should wear flannel bandages from the fetlock to the knee to support the flexor tendons and protect the horse from striking himself.

After exercising, the legs should be rubbed and the tendons massaged, followed by a cool water wash and the application of flannel bandages. Tendons are therefore supported, and wind puffs and swellings are avoided.

How Should A Bandage Be Adjusted? The tapes should be wrapped within a bandage. Unroll six or eight inches of it and lay it obliquely over the outside of the leg, near to the knee, with the end reaching to approximately the middle of that joint and the rolled-up section pointing downward and forward.

The bandaging should be wrapped over the fetlock and upper part of the pastern and reapplied near to the knee. The loose end is then folded down and the bandage folds are carried over it. The tapes are connected just above the cannon bone’s center.

Approaching an Uncertain Horse Approach the foreleg on the near side of an unsure horse that is kept or tied up in the open at an angle of roughly 70 degrees to the direction of the horse’s axis.

Place a hand on his chest and brush his mane once you’ve reached his shoulder. Further handling may be attempted if the horse’s confidence has been restored.

To use the Snaffle to lead a horse and to adjust the Snaffle. Pass both reins through the near snaffle ring if the horse is to be on the offside while leading a horse with a snaffle mounted or dismounted.

If feasible, place the reins over the horse’s neck first while putting on the snaffle bridle. If the horse refuses to wear the headstall, unfasten the left cheek-strap from the snaffle’s ring.

Set the headstall in place, then insert the bit and tighten the cheek strap. If it is impractical to remove the halter before bridling the horse, put the bridle on over the halter, unfasten the halter, slip the nose-band down over the nostrils, into the mouth, around the bit, and out of the mouth. The halter will then come undone.

Lungeing

When lungeing, the following principles must be kept in mind:

  • 1. The horse must be controlled by the longe; the whip’s sole duty is to propel the horse forward.
  • 2. The length of the longe should be adjusted on a regular basis. The horse should alternate between stretching in a big circle and bending in a short circle.
  • 3. The gaits should be altered on a regular basis.

Lungeing a Horse Method

Begin the lungeing workout without the lungeing whip. If feasible, put the cavesson on the horse after the halter has been removed, or over the bridle if the horse is wearing one.

Insert the longe into the cavesson’s ring. Face the horse and walk near his head, guiding him in a circle to the left by a short longe; right hand on the longe near the horse’s head, longe in the left hand, not coiled, but adjusted so that it does not become entangled or pinch the fingers while racing out fast.

If the horse refuses to lead, an aide may softly encourage him forward from the back.

Gradually extend the longe and drop back somewhat from the horse’s head toward his shoulders as he grows accustomed to being led.

Cluck to the horse to encourage him to move forward. If the horse refuses to go forward, make similar gestures with your hand or softly touch him on the side with your palm.

If the horse turns toward the trainer, shake the longe such that it softly touches the horse’s nose on the side facing the middle of the circle.

Gradually, as the horse learns what is desired, the trainer moves such that the horse circles about him, initially at a moderate pace, then at a trot, and finally, as the horse becomes more adept, at a canter and gallop.

To slow down the stride, use a calming voice and gently shake the longe up and down. A sequence of motions of the longe up and down, with a hard pull on the longe as it comes down, will have the most effect in stopping the horse.

The phrase “whoa” should be used frequently in this movement. If the horse obeys, he should be petted.

When a horse will move to the left on the longe, even at a walk, he should be trained to go to the right until he is equally capable on both hands. A horse should not be allowed to run for an extended period of time until it becomes tired.

Use of the Longe:

  • 1. To exercise young horses safely.
  • 2. To teach difficult-to-manage horses their initial lessons.
  • 3. For horses that stifle or fight.
  • 4. For horses with one shoulder that is stronger than the other.
  • 5. For horses that do not work equally effectively on both sides.
  • 6. For horses that have trouble bending themselves.
  • 7. For the initial jumping lessons. 

The Snaffle Bit

A bridle and snaffle bit should be fitted to the horse as soon as feasible.

The snaffle is a relatively gentle bit since it primarily works on the lips and very slightly on the bars. As a result, hand flaws are less harmful to the young horse’s sensitive mouth.

When the horse grows accustomed with the snaffle bit during training, he may be prepared for the double bridle by using the double snaffle, a bit that is recognised not to be hazardous and allows the rider more action on the horse.

A double snaffle should be made up of a snaffle with no branches and a “Boucher” snaffle.

The double snaffle is also useful in the case of a horse that leans on its hands; the remedy in this case consists in producing action either by alternate effects that make each snaffle bit felt separately or by cross-effects obtained by the action of one snaffle bit on one side and the other snaffle bit on the other side.

Saddling New Horses 

Saddling New Horses  The saddle is first placed on without the stirrups, then with the stirrups crossed, and finally with the stirrups hanging.

The girth should be gently tightened at initially, then readjusted if necessary during the workouts. A anxious horse should be ridden for a few minutes before the saddle is placed on his back.

A horse should not be saddled and mounted for the first time on the same day. Getting on the New Horse When first mounting, the rider should climb into the saddle as fast and easily as possible, without being too precise.

A helper should be stands in front of the horse. The rider slaps the saddle, allowing the stirrups to fall on the horse’s flanks, and then picks up the reins, leaving them quite long.

If the horse backs up or attempts to go away, the assistant gently brings him back up to where he was before, and the rider attempts to mount again.

If the rider feels the horse will make forceful resistances, he can secure his seat by strapping a wrapped blanket to the saddle’s pommel to hold his knees in place.

When mounting a problematic horse, or when there is a risk of serious resistance, the horse should be snubbed up to a strong, quiet horse. Snubbing is only used when lungeing and calm handling have failed to provide the intended effects.

When dealing with agitated animals, the assistants stand directly in front of the horses and just stroke the horses’ heads without holding the reins. If a horse becomes agitated and the cavesson must be used, it should be in the hands of an experienced rider.

The following is a common mounting posture for a restless animal: Take the snaffle reins in your left hand and, with the same hand, grasp hold of the mane about the middle of the neck, creating little strain on the reins.

Mount with your right hand on the saddle’s pommel, being cautious not to touch the horse’s left toe.

Above all, avoid agitating the horse from the outset; if he is trained to expect it, he will never stand calmly to be mounted. When a horse is being mounted, feeding him oats from a pan helps him to stand calmly.

After Mounting, the first lessons begin. Never ask the horse-mounted for anything for the first time. It is adequate if he marches straight forward. Keep the reins apart and softly feel the snaffle.

Ride the horse around the hall a few times to the right and left, allowing him as free as possible, assuming he is calm.

If the horse behaves well, dismount and offer him carrots or a handful of oats if they are available. Carrots should always be sliced lengthwise rather than crosswise; otherwise, they may become stuck in the horse throat.

Resistances

Bucking and rearing are two of the most aggressive forms of resistance.

If the horse tries to buck, push him forward with your legs while keeping his head up. If the horse bucks in place, the rider is more readily dislodged.

If the rider is unable to move the horse ahead, he should use the snaffle bit to turn him to the right or left.

Because all horses have a soft and hard side to their lips, if resistance to turning to the right is encountered, the attempt should be made to turn him to the left.

When a horse rears, separate the reins and grab the mane with your left hand about the center of the neck. Lean forward, then when the horse comes down again, rapidly straighten the arm to bring the body back into place.

Equilibrium

Before the aids can be effectively grasped, a basic understanding of balance is required.

Equilibrium in Direct. This refers to the horse’s balance when the center of gravity is pushed forward or backward.

The horse’s forelegs are utilised for translation, while the hind legs are employed for propulsion. The horse’s forelegs naturally bear greater weight than his hind legs.

As a result, the center of gravity is closer to the forequarters than the hindquarters, which is advantageous to the horse’s forward movement.

It is more advantageous for the horse to go backward if the weight of the horse, by shifting the location of portions of the body, shifts the center of gravity to the rear.

When the center of gravity is forward, the forelegs govern mass movement, whereas the hind legs just propel.

When the center of gravity shifts backward, the hind legs gain control of the mass’s movement, and their motion is now from the ground up as well as from rear to front as previously. In other words, the movements get taller.

The forward movement of a horse is represented by the position of the horse:

  • 1. When a horse wants to move forward, he instinctively positions himself in the most advantageous posture; as a result, he sends his weight forward to his shoulders, stretching out his head and neck in the process.
  • 2. To achieve forward movement and accelerations in gait, the rider must allow the horse to stretch and lower his head and neck; similarly, to achieve slower gaits, he must lift them.
  • 3. A horse must constantly be ready to move ahead. This is the most essential equitation rule. The propensity to go ahead is referred to as “impulsion.” We can’t change the course if we don’t have any impetus.

The horse must be harnessed. Almost every vice and resistance provided by a horse is anticipated and made possible by the animal getting behind the bit; that is, he refuses to lace the bit or accept the pressure of the bit, so that the rider’s hand can find no way to impose his requests.

Equilibrium on the lateral side

This is analogous to a horse’s balance when its center of gravity is shifted sideways. It is a condition in which the horse is forced to burden one shoulder, one haunch, or all of one side more than the other.

It is utilised for directional changes, parallel displacements, and so on. If we push the horse to bear the weight of his forehand to one side, the entire forehand tends to be shifted to the same side.

If the horse’s center of gravity is sufficiently exaggerated, this dis- positioning is required.

What Exactly Are Aids? The aids are the many methods used by the rider to communicate his wishes or intentions to the horse.

The Limbs When the rider is correctly mounted and situated, the stirrups should be adjusted such that the tread of the stirrup is level with the top of the heel.

The rider is unable to utilise his legs with power and accuracy when the stirrups are overly long, as with the “fork seat.”

With excessively short stirrups, the rider’s knees are too high, the seat is driven too far back, and he is unable to settle down in the saddle, making him less secure.

Foot position in the stirrup. At least one-third of the foot should be placed into the stirrup; the first toe should be slightly lower than the second toe, and the ball of the foot should rest on the tread.

The legs are used for the following purposes:

  • 1. To cause forward movement.
  • 2. To position the haunches.
  • 3. Bring the back legs forward and beneath the torso. The action of both legs is equal. The most essential function of the legs is to work together to provide or maintain impulsion.
  • This action should control the forward motion and acceleration. To achieve this outcome, the legs can exert pressure on the knees alone or on the knees and calves together.
  • With fragile horses, simply the pressure of the knees is adequate; however, with others, the pressure of the calves must be added to that of the knees.
  • The higher the pressure and the larger the distance behind the girths, the greater the effect generated. The leg’s motion is usually powerful enough if it is placed against or slightly behind the girth. If the motion there is insufficient, it may be continued back a bit, but never to a 45-degree angle.
  • The goal is to have the leg move almost imperceptibly and change its effects solely by changing shades of p ensure; nevertheless, if the horse does not respond adequately to the demands, it is essential to carry the leg back a bit by bending the knee and maintaining the heel slow.
  • The inclination of the leg to 45 degrees is the absolute maximum, which is unscientific and useless to pass or even attempt, so that if the Q action of the leg is ineffective under these conditions, we must resort to more aggressive techniques.
  • However, there is minimal difficulty in training riders not to carry their legs too far back. Usually, the opposite is true.

If the aforementioned approach fails, the next step is to try successive pounding with the calf of the leg, which is not particularly pronounced but must be done until the desired effect is reached.

The legs should stop their action immediately and resume it only when the necessity arises again.

If this isn’t enough, the only option is to come to blows with the legs. These are carried out by slightly moving the calf to one side and slamming it into the horse with violence equal to the desired outcome.

This action should be performed without rising or jutting out the knees, with the lower half of the legs being independent of the rest of the body so that the seat and hand are not misaligned.

This method of gaining action on the horse should not be used for an extended period of time, even if the impact is insufficient or short-lived.

This, like any forceful movement, should be unusual, and rather than repeating it regularly, it is preferable to use the spurs’ brief, intense motion.

It is critical to avoid the common error of utilising the leg after adequate activity has been obtained from the horse or of continuing the requests after they have already been answered.

The horse’s impulsion is thus enhanced in a way that is detrimental to the desired goal, necessitating hand movement to counter the augmented impulsion wrongly directed by the legs.

Unequal Action of the Leas.  When one leg is utilised more than the other, the haunches shift to the other side.  

This effect is frequently useful in preventing the horse from slipping outside ways, straightening him, and forcing him to change directions, among other things; however, its greatest utility lies in allowing the rider to range the haunches and traverse the horse, which movements are essential to the main instruction in the mental and physical supply of the horse.

The principles for using both legs apply as well to using one leg, in terms of the point of contact and the way of grading the degree of activity.

“Equal Action of Both Legs and Unequal Action of the Leg,” from “Elementary Equitation: Bringing the Hind Legs Forward Under the Horse.”

When pushed, the horse automatically pulls his rear legs up under the body due to muscular contraction caused by the tickling sensation of the leg or spur on the side.

Because the center of gravity is closer to their base, raising up the hind legs gives them more control over the movement of the bulk.

As a result, the horse’s leg motions become more raised, the speed decreases, and the animal becomes more manoeuvrable and easy to handle.

Legs help each other out. If one leg operates to extend the hamstrings, the other should receive the mass to restrict and regulate the action. Both legs should be near enough to the horse at all times to help each other precisely, swiftly, and without abruptness.

When a Horse’s Legs Are “Behind the Legs.” When a horse refuses to move forward despite producing equal movement with both legs, he is said to be “behind the bit” and “behind the legs.”

A horse in this position is beyond the rider’s control, and every effort should be made to push the horse’s legs back into the bit.

The spur should not be utilised until the seat has been properly secured. The spur should not be used if the pressure of the calves of the legs is adequate to command impulsion.

If the spur remains in the side for an extended period of time, the horse becomes rebellious and protective. To match the scenario, continual contact should be replaced with repeated touches of a brief period of intensity.

The length of the spur is determined by the length of the stirrup leathers, the length of the rider’s leg, and the shape of the horse.

A basic rule is that the spur should be long enough to be easily utilised without the risk of accidental utilisation during rapid displacements.

The Reins

The reins should be held in two hands throughout horse training.

The following crucial guideline should be followed at all times: The rider’s legs, or his heels, must always come before any hand movement; in other words, the bit does not go back to the horse, but the horse moves forward against the bit.

It has been demonstrated that impulsion is created in the horse by the motion of the legs, which produces a stretching of the neck to the front to initiate or accelerate the forward movement.

If the forward movement of the bit in the mouth is stopped by the hand as the head and neck stretch out, the bit is brought into stronger contact with the bars of the mouth, producing its action.

The action of the reins is therefore created after the effect of the legs has been established.

There are several types of reins:

Open Rein

This rein is used to help the horse turn. If the right hand is carried to the right and forward, the right rein is said to be open.

Reins are so named because of the effect they produce on the horse’s head. The need for them is felt most acutely while training green horses, but also when a horse refuses to turn and moves his head in the opposite way as the rider wishes.

When the right rein is released, the horse’s head is dragged to the right, assisting him in going in that direction.

Free Rein

This rein operates parallel to the horse’s axis, with no intermediary action on the horse’s neck.

Reins employed in this manner transfer a small amount of weight to the side on which they act, which is sufficient to cause an obedient horse to turn to that side.

It is also used to turn the horse’s head at the poll so that he may gaze in the direction he is traveling.

Support’s Reel When the right hand travels from right to left, the right rein bears against the neck and is so called the right rein of support.

It has varied impacts depending on where its activity is focused. For example, if the hand is moved towards or over the left shoulder, the effect is to shift the weight of the forehand towards that shoulder; or if the direction of the right rein of support passes in the rear of the withers, the effect is felt by increased weight on the left haunch.

The action of the support rein is particularly effective in stopping the horse from sliding out on its side or from turning in the other direction.

Opposition Handcuffs

When the rider opens the right rein slightly and pulls in the direction of the right or left haunch, the rein is referred to be the right rein of opposition. The shoulders are therefore said to be positioned in opposition to the haunches.

A common guideline is that the reins must always maintain contact with the mouth via the medium of the bit. The reins are never let go. There are two exceptions to this rule: during total abandon, such as when walking, and temporarily during flexions, as will be demonstrated later.

The Seat. When the seat shifts the body’s support from one buttock to the other, it aids the horse in lateral movements.

This action assists in moving the horse’s center of gravity to the side needed for movement.

Similarly, increasing the weight on one stirrup is beneficial. Leaning forward or back with the upper body also helps the horse move the center of gravity forward and back.

The Forward Movement

With the horses now able to be mounted, the following exercises can be performed:

If available, the horses are taken into the riding-hall, and the riders are instructed to work without regard for distances.

Working in groups is a poor idea, especially with young horses, because they quickly grow accustomed to sticking in lines and refuse to leave.

As previously said, the most essential lesson in training is forward movement, which is continuously taught during the duration of teaching.

The Stroll. To begin walking from a standstill, both legs should be felt, progressively increasing their energy until the setting in motion is achieved.

To enable the neck to extend, the fingers and wrists give. By symmetrical application of the aids, the horse should be placed in motion in the direction of his axis. The movement should be fluid yet not hesitant.

To avoid a jarring start, the energy shown in the use of the leg should correspond to the horse’s level of sensitivity.

The movement may be prevented from being hesitatingly completed gradually, but without hesitatingly, by utilising the power that the legs should have, and by giving the reins with the fingers and wrist at the precise instant the neck wants to extend out.

The Trotter

This is the best gait to employ during the initial sessions because:  

  • 1. Horses are less agitated in this gait.
  • 2. It moves at a natural speed.
  • 3. It is a good horse suppling exercise. The trot is not a strenuous speed for the horse. He can go a long distance at a reasonable speed with this gait since both fore and rear legs have the same amount of labor to accomplish, and the body can be readily maintained in a condition of balance because it is supported by diagonal supports.

During this exercise, the rider should ascend to the trot if on a flat saddle, except at slow gaits. The diagonal along which the ascent is made should be modified on a regular basis.

The horse’s lightness can only be achieved with more training. Until this moment, the rider has been attempting to gradually bring the horse under control with the following exercises:

  • 1. Walking to the front, then trotting.
  • 2. Alternating between increasing and decreasing gaits.
  • 3. Coming to a halt.

To Halt

Lean back slightly and gradually raise the pressure of the bit on the lips until the action slows down and gradually steps.

Roth’s legs should be carried back at the same moment to help the horse in pulling the haunches up beneath him. The horse’s head should not be raised or lowered. The whole length of the neck should be moved toward the withers.

Stopping the horse should be done often with horses who have a high, strong croup and are prone to forging ahead at all times.

Those who are prone to worrying, those whose legs are well set up beneath them, and those who are difficult to hold up into the bit should be stopped as little as possible.

During these sessions, the rider must pay close attention to the even tension of the rein.

At initially, the rider must do all of the work, that is, tighten the reins; but, once the horse has gotten accustomed to the pressure of the bit and always has the intention of moving straight forward, he will maintain the reins taut of his own volition.

The Gallop is a horse race. Almost always, the gallop lesson should begin early.

This is an extra method of feeding the horse, as well as strengthening, extending, and propelling him forward.

It would be foolish to gallop regularly on a colt that drags his legs and is disunited at a trot and has trouble holding the part necessary for training.

However, it is appropriate to gallop frequently on a lively horse that has been exercised before to purchase, or on a horse with good strong legs, especially once he has been completely confirmed in the right trot.

Extending the Trot to Take the Gallop To achieve this action, the rider must first trot and then use both legs to drive this gait up to the point where the horse departs it to enter the gallop.

To do this without increasing the horse’s pace too much, first trot around a circle of six or seven yards radius, then prolong the trot until the animal escapes into the gallop.

When the rider is calm and secure in himself, he may exit the circle and resume the course on the same hand.

It makes little difference whether the horse is galloping true or false as long as the rider does not want to make rapid changes of direction and gallops on a big circle or the track, and it is pointless for the rider to worry about the leads at this level of the training.

The Gaits Mechanism

The Stroll

This is a four-beat movement in which all four legs move one after the other. If the left fore, for example, leads, the sequence is: 

  • 1. The right hind.
  • 2. Right fore
  • 3. The left hind.

If the near hind starts, the sequence will be: 

  • 1. To the left fore.
  • 2. The right hind.
  • 3. Right fore.

Each foot follows the one before it to the ground at roughly half the time it takes to take one stride. As a result of this, we have the following support order:

  • 1. laterals to the right (right fore and right hind).
  • 2. diagonals to the right (right fore and left hind).
  • 3. Left laterals.
  • 4. Left diagonals.

A horse’s walk usually begins with a foreleg.

The Trot

This is a two-beat movement. At the same time, the diagonal feet are on the ground. The supports are listed in the following order: 

  • 2. Suspension moment.
  • 3. A diagonal to the left.
  • 4. Suspension moment.

The Pace

This is a two-beat movement similar to the trot, but the support is provided by the laterals rather than the diagonals. The order of the supports is as follows: 

The order of the supports is as follows: 

  • 2. Suspension moment
  • 3. Lateral left
  • 4. Suspension moment

The Gallop

The gallop is a three-beat unsymmetrical gait. It is named unsymmetrical because the two front legs move in opposite directions, as do the two hind legs.

There are two distinct combinations that occur, which are referred to as “gallops right” and “gallops left.” A beat is the moment when you take each fresh point of support.

The points of support in the gallop right are taken in the following order:

  • 1. The left hind.
  • 2. diagonal to the left (left front, right hind).
  • 3. Front right.
  • 4. Suspension moment.

The left gallop is as follows:

  • 1. The right hind.
  • 2. diagonal to the right (right front, left hind).
  • 3. Front left.
  • 4. Suspension moment

A horse galloping right, for example, appears to have the right legs always ahead of the left. The rider can detect if the right shoulder is farther forward than the left by looking at the position of the shoulders.

If the horse gallops directly in front and to the left, the rider may notice an unusually rigid movement beneath him.

Changing Directions

Changes in direction can be attempted if the horse is able to go forward to reduce and increase gaits with fair precision.

The First Exercise

The horse at the walk drives the horse forward with both legs using the free rein, and if he goes off at an angle oblique to the initial direction, the divergence is good, even if it is tiny.

Second Exercise

When the horse is at a walk, use the right or left leg to help move the haunches around to the left or right; use the right or left rein of opposition to turn the horse to the right or left in a perpendicular direction to the original.

The opposing rein is utilised to counteract the hunches with the shoulder.

The horse does not yet understand the meaning of the rider’s dominant use of one leg, the shoulder combating the haunch will cause the haunch to swing around, and if the horse feels the rider’s leg on that side every time he is forced to swing his haunches by the rein of opposition, he will begin to associate the use of the leg with the swinging of the haunches.

The third exercise

Gradually reduce the use of opposition as an open rein as the horse learns the meaning of the use of one leg, until it eventually becomes a direct rein, used just to turn the head slightly in the new direction.

As the rein of resistance, or open rein, is reduced, assuming it was the right rein, gradually bring the left rein of support into play to drive the forequarters to the right in the new direction.

As for the legs, have both ready to sustain impulsion, and each ready to act independently if the hind feet do not follow in the tracks of the forefeet while changing direction.

The hind legs are the propellers, and maximum power is always preferred. For strictly mechanical reasons, the most power of the hind legs is gained during turns when they follow the same route as the forelegs.

Abouts, circles, figures of eight, and serpentines are exercises that, in order of difficulty, can be used to achieve the same goal as the preceding exercises, but with greater precision.

All of these exercises should be done at the walk until you are comfortable with them before attempting them at the slow trot. The rider is seated at the blow trot.

Abouts on the forehand from the standstill may be done at this level of training with horses who are naturally impulsive and constantly try to forge to the front.

It may be attempted early in the case of horses with excessive impulsiveness. For less impetuous horses, the activity should be done later.

Always finish the action by pushing the horse straight to the front. The forehand around should always be about the inner leg as a pivot, otherwise the action is retrograde and tends to place the horse behind the bit.

It must be noted that the about on the forehand is not a finished action at this level of training, during lateral equitation.

To perform an about on the forehand to the right; both legs to stimulate impulsion; right leg to swing the haunches; right rein of opposition to help the right leg; left rein to assist the right in its second function of stopping the horse from moving forward.

The left leg is constantly ready to stop the horse from backing up.

Concerning the Forehand (Dismounted). Dismounted exercises may be recommended for horses who are particularly difficult to teach the use of the leg as an assistance. Only brief instruction should be offered.

Seize the reins six to eight inches from the bit in the left hand, working on the left side.

Face the horse and use the riding whip to touch him at the back of the girth where the rider’s leg would normally come when used as an assist.

Increase the force of the whip, starting with mild taps, until the horse’s haunches swing away from the lash.

The horse’s movement is halted by the left hand, which prohibits it from going forward or backward.

If the horse first fails to move his haunches, he can be helped by tilting his head slightly to the side of the trainer. This helps the whip’s stroke by opposing the head to the haunches.

Outdoor Work

Outdoor activity is necessary in certain circumstances, and ideal in all cases, from the moment the horse will go straight ahead.

Horses who tend to go behind the bit or do not let themselves out should have outdoor work alternating with hall work on a regular basis.

The horse being gradually taught a nice free trot should be taken outside, with adequate time between trots for the animal to resume normal breathing.

Two days each week, typical horses should be used for outside exercise.

All horses require fresh outside air on a regular basis.

Horses who bolt or blast forward all the time, or those who place the majority of their weight on the forehand, require a lot more hall work than outside work.

Trots on soft footing are especially important for young horses. On rough roads, no horse should be galloped.

Turf or dirt roads, not plowed land or stone-built roads, are examples of soft terrain. The gallop is only performed outside when the horse can be trained to lead from either foot.

When anxious horses travel in pairs, they do not worry as much when outside as they would if they were alone.

It is also preferable not to keep a formation in ranks outside for any longer than required in order to avoid fresh horses from developing the habit of going in ranks and refusing to leave.

The horse should be walked at the end of the outside exercise so that he may be brought to the stable breathing normally.

Suppling Exercises With A Bent Body

Equitation Comes in a Variety of Forms. Lateral equitation occurs when, for example, the right rein and right leg help one other in moving the haunches.

When the reins control the forehand and the legs alone control the hind hand, as if the left rein and right leg are utilised, this is referred to as diagonal equitation.

Lateral equitation

During the lateral equitation exercises, keep the following principles in mind:

  • 1. At initially, one right step is all that should be anticipated or demanded.
  • 2. Because the movements are tiring, they should not be performed for more than a few seconds at a time.
  • 3. Horses who are stiff on one side should be provided with workouts on that side.
  • 4. Except for the neck, the preceding rule applies to all sections of the horse. If the right side of the neck is tight, supple it using exercises like “Shoulder In” on the left hand.
  • 5. The motions are all started at a walk and progressed to a leisurely trot once you’re comfortable with them.
  • 6. When the motions are performed on a circle, with the forequarters on one circumference and the hindquarters on either a bigger or a smaller circumference, the result, in addition to suppling, is as follows:
  • When the haunches are on a smaller circumference than the forequarters, the horse tends to collect, his hindquarters tend to come up under the body, and it is a good movement for a horse that forges ahead.
  • When the haunches are on a larger circumference than the forequarters, the horse tends to be forced up into the bit and to stretch out behind, making it a useful movement with sluggish horses.
  • 7. When doing any of the following exercises, if the horse fails to respond to the movement of both legs and does not go up into the bit, stop the exercise immediately and proceed straight forward at a trot or gallop, without returning to the activity until the horse is again into the bit.

Suppling the Haunches: The First Exercise

This lesson comprises of marching with abouts on the forehand.

For example, when marching on the right hand, leave the track diagonally (obliquely) and return to it with a half turn to the left exacted by every pronounced motion of the left leg and left rein.

This highly defined lateral impact carries the horse’s haunches to the right; that is, the horse submits to the effect of the leg (and left rein) while still gaining ground, describing a half circle.

The same action is performed while marching on the left hand, and the horse finally swings the haunches smoothly around the forehand, without stopping, striking the fetlocks, or dancing.

This exercise’s directions are as follows: 

  • 1. Right oblique.
  • 2. March.
  • 3. On the forehand.
  • 4. Make a half-turn in reverse.
  • 5. March.

In this example, “half turn” and “reverse” may be combined to get “left half turn,” but “in reverse” has special importance, therefore the phrases should be kept.

Hunkers Down. While marching, this action is used to demand loyalty to one leg. It maintains the suppleness of the hindquarters and ensures the leg’s compliance.

It should only be attempted if the horse has yielded freely to the legs in earlier exercises.

March using your right hand, using the left rein of opposition and your left leg. It is adequate if the horse swings his hindquarters to the right so that the left hindsteps follow a line across the prints of the right forefoot.

The left opposition rein aids the movement of the left leg. At start, one step at a time is sufficient to require.

Repeat the action many times, progressively increasing the number of steps required in the right posture. Never demand a movement across a greater distance than the length of the riding hall at one time. The following precautions should be taken seriously:

  • 1. Never allow the horse’s body to form an angle greater than 45 degrees with respect to the initial direction. Use the inside leg to avoid this.
  • 2. Never let your gait deteriorate. To avoid this, demand impulsion with both legs when necessary.
  • 3. When going to the right, do not lean to the left. When shifting to the right, the weight of the body should be somewhat greater on the right buttock.
  • 4. When going to the right, do not let the right rein slack.

Take a step forward. This is a more challenging and beneficial workout than haunches in. This movement serves both the forehand and the backhand.

When marching on the right hand, use the right open rein and the left rein of support first, then move the forequarters off the track and turn the head to the right; the right leg is then used to push the mass from right to left and the left leg to receive the swinging of the haunches and control the impulsion.

During the initial lessons, when the forequarters have been moved off the track, the outer rein may be gently extended to allow progress down the course.

The reins keep the head securely between them, preventing lateral bending of the neck at the shoulders.

If the left forefoot and right hind go along the same route parallel to the track, the forequarters are sufficiently distant from the track.