There are several hamster family members. They can be found almost anywhere in the world. Species found in Europe, Central Asia, Greece, Africa, and Syria, of course, are more common.

This little bear is really adorable! He has an infinite supply of charming .  He is odorless, gentle, and affordable to maintain. But merely mentioning these terms does not reflect his true capabilities as a pet. Let’s go on to hamster history from here.

This article is concerned with the Syrian Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, the giant hamster, the dwarf hamster, and the Winter white dwarf hamster.

Hamsters are commonly referred to as “miniature bears.” He is approximately six inches long, weighing about three to four and a half  ounces.

However, his fur is thick and smooth, and deep, and golden bear. The undercoat is light gray, but the belly fur is beginning to seem much whiter. The “rat-like” head is really becoming shorter and broader.

The dark bands of fur, flashes, and a broad band of fur go across the breast. The tail is stumpy and short, but the ears are huge and the eyes are bright. The hamster can be lifted by a fold of skin that is so soft and elastic.

The best-known characteristics of the hamster are hoarding behaviors and fecundity. The name, hamster, derives from the German word, hamsters, which means “hoarder.” According to reports, hamsters that are larger than 60 pounds and golden hamsters are also primarily grain-eating animals.  

There are two elongated pouches on each side of the hamster’s face. They start at the cheeks and link all the way back to the shoulders. Perhaps the hamster’s greatest joy in life is collecting food in these pouches, retiring to a private corner to disgorge the contents, and revelling in its store.

The gestation period is about 16 days, mothers typically wean their young at four weeks. The mother’s recuperation is done after three to four days.  Hamsters reach mature breeding age at about three months and live an average of two years, you can see that their short gestation time and the short intervals between litters contribute to their prolificacy.

How Do I Pick The Right Hamster?

For breeding purposes, purchasing stock involves certain aspects to be mindful of.

Don’t look for bargains. Hamsters should weigh three to four ounces, with sizes ranging from about the palm of your hand to slightly longer.Both male and female should be fairly calm, although the female may not want the male in the cage with her.  Choosing a hamster from a cage that contains both men and females may lead to an unwelcome family member who will likely give birth prematurely.

How would you describe appearance? Primarily, healthy signs: soft, silky fur; bright eyes; and a general impression of solidity. Never buy a bony hamster.

Next scrutinize the ears. In young hamsters, the ears are covered with white hair which vanish with age. You should never choose a hamster that shows naked, shiny ears; this would indicate that it is past its prime.  Sometimes hamsters with nicked ears are on sale. This detracts nothing from their actual value, since it is only a tool of the breeder to identify individuals of his herd.

Check the ears while examining the nose, the feet, and the belly. Avoid the animals with the most acne on these places. They might indicate the beginning of mange for your hamster and endless work for you. (There is no guaranteed cure for this highly infectious disease).

How Do I Set Up My Hamster’s Home?

The Cage is One of the determining factors in successful hamster raising. is a properly designed and well-built cage. It should be gnaw-proof to prevent the escape of the animals and large enough so that the nest area uses less than one-half of the floor space.   

The completed nest normally measures 10 inches in diameter. Water bottles and tubes and feed chutes built into the fronts of the cages eliminate the necessity of opening the cage doors when feeding and watering.

Good cage dimensions are : twelve inches high, twelve inches wide.  Complete wire hardware cloth enables adequate ventilation. The back wall may be removed and covered with hardware cloth (hail screen) if the additional circulation of air is desired.

Opening of the cage doors for the full period of the young being with their mother results in minimal cannibalism. Every mother animal takes her young’s well-being seriously, and a mother hamster is afraid of cage doors opening and closing too frequently, believing that her young are in danger.

To help the young, she secures them in cheek pouches where they die from lack of air. Their mother will eat them later. To begin with, the simple elimination of this cause of cannibalism increases the average weaned litter be larger in number.

The watering bottle is simple to create. Regardless of the bottle’s size or shape, you may utilize it. A quarter-inch glass drinking tube is installed in a snug-fitting cork. The tube should be five inches long and heated over a flame and bent at an angle of one hundred five degrees.

Feed chutes are installed in the wire fronts of the cage doors through a small opening. Young hamsters may climb through the opening if it is too large.

Self-cleaning cages and solid cages may be used. A self-cleaning kit should use a six hardware cloth. To prevent injuries, only sawdust, ground corn cobs, cane, peanut shells, or any other nice clean absorbent substance should be used.

Cages are practical for beginners in all sorts of ways. The amateur must “stick” with hamsters before putting big sums of money into a project. Starting small enables him to gain first-hand knowledge about hamsters and discover whether he wants to take hamster-raising on a huge scale.

A cage may be eight inches wide, ten inches high, and twelve inches long inside. Different homemade cages, pens, and runs are ideal for hamster raising on a small scale. Even birdcages have been employed. The breeder determines the choice of material. Fly-screen, hardware cloth, wood, metal, or glass all make great and usable cages.

For cages made of wood, boards should be checked for gnawing signs daily and fitted closely at all seams. Spots where a hamster has started to gnaw should be covered with tin or wire cloth.

Cages should have a close-fitting cover to prevent the escape of the animals in any form of cage construction.

Housing for Hamsters It makes little difference to the hamster if she lives in a city, a country, or in a barn. While the majority of hamsters can be found indoors, this does not mean that hamsters are not resilient. They will do equally as well outside, provided attention is given to them.

The breeder is protected from the elements indoors. Feeding, breeding, watering, and crating for shipment indoors turns tasks that may be arduous under all weather conditions into a joyful pleasure.

Above all, the extra attention outdoor hamsters require more time to be spent observing and breeding the better hamsters.

A few factors must be kept in mind if you want to rear hamsters that are housed outside. The young are born naked, therefore it is critical to provide them with a warm, well-made nest. The winter season is very difficult.

The box may be made of wood. The joints must be tightly fitted together.  This opening should be enough just for the female to penetrate before she gives birth.

The opening should be tinned and about three inches from the bottom.  It should be at least six inches square and have a hinged lid. Excelsior, hay, or shredded pieces of paper should be used just half-filled in the nest box.

She may make a nest from additional material placed in the cage for this purpose. Same nest box can be used  in summer, remove the hinged wooden cover and replace it with one made of wire, or use without a cover. Caring for the nest box requires covering the top edges to avoid gnawing.

Watering can be done using small face cream jars in those parts of the country where the temperature falls below freezing. They can withstand a great deal of pressure before breaking.

Although water bottles themselves are safe, removing ice is challenging. This will break with low ice pressure. For southern portions and well-protected structures, utilize the water bottle.

Demand for hamsters seems to increase in the winter. This is because breeders must lower their hamster production because of insufficient facilities for raising hamsters during this season.

Those lucky breeders who can produce in this timeframe should expect more sales and better prices.

Nesting material availability is the only determining factor when deciding on the preferred nesting material. The following is offered as a suggestion, not as a guidance.

Dried grass is an excellent nesting material; Many breeders choose excelsior; Less dusty hay and straw will serve the purpose; Wood and leaves produce young insulating material; Bits and strips of paper form an excellent nest material due to the insulating capabilities.

Never use tissue paper on damp surfaces, like the baby hamster’s body.

How To Feed Hamsters?

The hamster is an easy-to-feed animal. They are fed one time daily or twice daily. Using the latter feeding method, bigger volumes of feed are to be supplied to each animal at each feeding. Practical, as the hamsters cannot overeat, nor eat bad food if there is more food available.

When feeding hamsters, 6-times-weekly is the most beneficial. Feed is brought back to the nest in the cheek pouches and consumed as required.

Many mammals, including hamsters, can survive and even thrive on dry food. Giving them green food with high moisture content and withholding water from their diet provides absolutely no adverse consequences.

On the whole, litter size and number compared favourably to females getting unlimited water supply. The daughters of non-water-drinking females revealed to be superior breeders or equal to their moms.

Young hamsters begin eating other food at around fourteen days of age. Their eyes are still closed, but they crawl instinctively from the nest to where feed is stored and back again.

Importance of Vitamins,  play an important part in hamster raising , hamsters are generally unable to absorb enough Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin) to remain in perfect health. 

Only breeders know if hamsters have enough of this vitamin in their diet. Today’s better-tasting feeds contain Vitamin D.

Although hamsters are one of the few animals that can be raised without water if they are fed an adequate supply of green feed, however hamsters, being a smaller animal, are more practical for raising many animals.

Of the two, the watering can is preferred. None of the floorspace inside the cage is used because only the end of the tube is inside the cage front. There is no possible chance of contamination.

Due to the need for a high protein diet, keep in mind that high protein content in any ratio is very necessary for the health of hamsters.

With limited supply of green vegetables during the winter, sprouted oats and sprouted soybeans are easily and cheaply produced.

Wintertime scarcity of fresh veggies is causing unnecessary burdens on the hamsters. Most winter, relatively little money is needed to grow sprouted soybeans.

After four or five days, the sprouts will be three inches long. Sprouts and a been can be fed to hamsters.

Soybeans are numerous, high in health and growth-promoting characteristics, and when sprouted, they give a generous amount of Vitamin C. Sprouting also forms more riboflavin and niacin. Furthermore, soybeans are cheap.

The high protein content of the sprouts helps hamsters in excellent health and breeding condition. A high protein diet results in larger litters and healthier hamsters.

Most grocery stores have systems in place to conserve vegetable trimmings, which hamsters absolutely love. Adding green feed to the usual diet, especially during the winter months, can assure healthy hamsters, while cutting feeding costs to the minimum. 

Feeding hay in the dried form to hamsters is a waste of time and money. They will eat very little of it, utilizing most of it to make or to add to their nest.

Ideally, the daily diet should include ground hay, which is blended with other grains in a pellet form.

Dry bread can be an excellent addition to the regular diet, and it is greatly enjoyed by hamsters.

Maintaining And Breeding Hamsters

From the perspective of the novice, this chapter on breeding and handling of hamsters is obviously more significant than the others, which occur in this article.

It is easier to handle adult female hamsters since they are maintained in individual cages. Hamsters who are capable of breeding should be housed separately.

The cage hamsters can be kept with young stock and adult males following gender separation.

When females are to be bred, they are placed in the breeding cage (up to five females at a time) and left for four to five days.

Only after they’ve grown will they be moved to individual cages. This method has one significant disadvantage you won’t be able to keep individual records of your herd’s production.

When females are to be bred, they are placed in the breeding cage (up to five females at a time) and left for four to five days. Only after they’ve grown will they be moved to individual cages.

This method has one significant disadvantage you won’t be able to keep individual records of your herd’s production. The sexual cycle is four to five days. Another method of breeding is by colonies. Two or three males, which have been raised together, are kept in a large cage as studs.

When females are to be bred, they are placed in the breeding cage ( as many as five at a time ) and left until they show the size and then removed to individual cages. This method has one drawback. You are unable to keep individual records of production on your herd.

The gestation period is sixteen days. The average litter is between seven and eight, although litters with as many as twelve young are frequently weaned.

The gestation period is sixteen days. The average litter is between seven and eight, although litters with as many as twelve young are frequently weaned.

After weaning, the females are rested for four to six days before being bred again. Female hamsters can be bred for the first time when they are between thirty – five and forty days old. Five or six litters are all a good female will produce during her sexual life.

If a female will breed after six litters, the litters will be small or the female will kill all the young. It is better to replace these animals with younger breeding stock.

Additionally, it is better to replace these animals with younger breeding stock.

Cannibalism can be prevented if certain factors are kept in cage when mother hamsters have their young. A dark place is high for the nest, and a constant temperature between fifty-five to seventy degrees Fahrenheit should  be maintained.

Adult hamsters can withstand colder temperatures, but young hamsters are naked, and they need extra heat. Strange noises, such as loud voices, should be avoided.

High humidity is desirable. Cage doors should be opened as few times as possible to prevent disturbing the mother.

Do not handle the mother hamster when she is with her young. Her instinct to bite is protective. This normally ends once the young are taken from the cage.

Mother hamsters will continue to take young hamsters back to the nest as long as they’re still being carried.

Types Of Hamster Breeding

Breeding for selectiveness The earliest and most-used method of breeding is known as selective breeding. Mating the best with the best, in the expectation that the quality of their baby is high.

The best animals available today can be attributable to selective breeding.

All other methods of breeding are nothing but refined methods of selective breeding to which something has been added.

While selective breeding is the preferred approach of breeders, it does not completely without drawbacks.

Mated animals with greater numbers of hereditary features will take longer to reach the goal of homogeneity in their young. For the newbie, selective breeding will yield greater outcomes with less disappointment.

Pedigree breeding currently isn’t a widespread practice among hamster breeders. In all likelihood, the moment has come for this form of breeding to be acknowledged, making it one of the more popular breeding methods.

Pedigree breeding is the way in which a hamster is evaluated for their accomplishments as well as their ancestry. It concentrates the bloodlines and inherited traits of the top hamsters.

Fault of pedigree breeding is paying greater attention to the lineage of the person instead of the individual’s own strengths. Discarding is important if a hamster is created that has lost some of the characteristics of the parent stock.

Regardless of his illustrious lineage, this variety of hamster must not be utilized for breeding. He would be the “foundational stock” of future hamsters, as hamsters of this sort produce “poor-quality”.

Pedigree has at times resulted in worthless animals being utilized for breeding, since he has had sound pedigrees.

Line breeding is the process of breeding animals within their ancestry. This includes inbreeding. The breeding cousins of varying degrees actually form a system.

No other way of breeding yields comparable results; in addition, breeders prefer it.

The lineage of the mated animals leads to the fact that progeny have similar characteristics, making uniformity of traits a confirmed fact in line breeding.

Line-breeding results in the majority of the positive qualities of inbreeding, while occasionally introducing unfavourable characteristics. In every breeding program, only the best hamsters should be mated.

Inbreeding is a mother of breeding that involves mating brothers, as well as mating parents and their children.

Desire to amplify superior animals blood is the genesis of inbreeding.

Inbreeding is of no harm. Many small-stock breeders currently consider that inbreeding is the worst possible practice in animal breeding.

Because inbreeding will exhibit the hereditary characteristics of any breed of animal, breeders blame the results on the process of breeding rather than on the genetic defects. B etter young are typically produced when stock are started within good.

No experimental evidence will show that inbreeding of tiny animals of the same species for over ten years causes any problems. Conversely, their vigour and size surpass those achieved by other methods of breeding.

Breeding will increase the chances of creating whatever faults that hamsters have. Although hamsters are healthy, these new deformities cannot be generated.

A hamster breeder who intends to pursue inbreeding must keep in mind that whenever a problem arises, it indicates the animals have lost part of the inherited qualities necessary to create decent offspring. Once this is obvious, he must choose carefully.

Breeding stock It’s not simple to acquire foundation stock. Raising hamsters is greatly affected by this single element. Having cages, nutrition, and care available to provide top-quality breeding stock is not a luxury but a need.

When buying breeding stock, look for a breeder who will ensure the stock he is selling is not runts or culls or laboratory test survivors. Purchase of young stock should be for breeding purposes.

By buying young stock, your entire animal’s production is in your cages. Using this helps preserve a record of the females productivity, because raising your own future breeding stock is the greatest approach to ensure secondary breeders.

Don’t buy an old or so-called “proven breeder” hamster because only one or two litters will be of good quality. The rule, not the exception.

Therefore, if you acquire hamsters whose sexual lives has been interrupted, you are not receiving your money’s worth. ”

Knowingly (as opposed to unknowingly) selecting one’s future breeding stock. Rigid rules should be implemented to govern breeders’ future selection.

The litter should comprise eight or nine young. The litter should contain no runts. In favour of females, ratio of sex should be greater, and breeding size of mother’s previous litters must be large.

This may sound impossible but be assured that it is not. The increased production of these hamsters as breeders will prove the worth of this practice.

Keep young breeders with their mothers for an additional five to seven days. This also contributes to larger, healthier hamsters as well as a higher amount of maternal milk.

Doing so will result in larger litters with the young being better than average future breeding stock.

Differences Between Male And Female Hamsters

Hamster sexing is a straightforward operation for an experienced breeder, but for a newbie, it can be difficult and time-consuming.

Male and female hamsters can be weaned (eighteen to twenty – days old) or kept together until they are five weeks old. Regardless of when sexing is done, one of the following approaches is used.

Clear glass quart jars may be used to hold each hamster, allowing the animal to be observed from below. Also, the hamster may be elevated by using the skin on the shoulders. Then the hand is palm up with the animal lying on his back. Alternatively, the animal may be placed on a table or comparable object. After resisting, he is rolled over onto his back.

A second method, employed largely by experienced breeders, is examining hamsters’ backs from above. With practice, you can distinguish males and females by their physical contours.

The male hamster shows a tapering, extended posterior. Scrotums are not found in the position they are expected to be. It looks like a wart, and is normally located around one-fourth to one-half inch from the anus.

The female hamster’s back is not as vividly coloured as the male. The vagina is nearly hairless, with a few gray hairs and slit-like in appearance.

Occasionally, it is difficult to tell the sex of the hamster. This happens commonly if sexing is done while hamsters are young.

If one is undecided as to the sex of an animal, the animal can be placed in a cage with an old male that has been used for breeding. 

For a male animal, the old male may sniff at him and attack him without much mauling.

If it is a young female, the older male will chase her down, attempting to mount. She may drag her hindquarters on the cage like an older female might.

The female hamster has this trait. One should be able to determine the sex of the animal by this time, and hence remove it from the stud’s cage.

Sexing can be done using body contours; practice is required. This can result in errors in identifying whether a male has had reduced sexual growth, because his testicles are small.

It is impossible to definitively detect the sex of an animal in one go Males who are slower in developing sexually than their brothers are frequently found during weaning time.

Hamster Hygiene

Sanitation is widely considered to be a strong aspect in animal husbandry. Free of disease, the golden hamster is no exception to the rule. Healthy animals will not remain in tip-top shape if cages are not kept clean. Environment influences health; heredity ensures it.

Set up a cage cleaning program and follow it regularly. Every cleaning should disinfect the cages. The animal’s death requires double disinfection. Similarly, the ill hamsters should be exterminated. Everything needed for feeding should be sanitized every week.

Whether you are providing bedding or providing for an animal’s nesting needs, it must be given in suitable numbers.

Absolute cleanliness cannot exist with insects, mice, and rats permitted in your house. Any excellent insecticide will do the trick, as will screening all doors and windows.

If hamsters are housed in a building where it is impossible for them to be completely rat and mouse – proof, you should keep a non-toxic poison where rodents will always find it.

Any poison that will kill mice and rats will also kill hamsters. because they are also rodents and cannot disgorge anything they have swallowed

Ventilation can be achieved by adjusting the windows in your hamstery. To ensure your hamsters have adequate building, a fan or electric blower should be placed near a window to help circulate the circulation. 

Isolation of new breeding stock bought for replacement or for increasing the size of the herd will prove worthwhile in the long run. 

Often, infected stock is introduced with dangerous repercussions. Avoiding negligence will ensure the herd’s survival. This guideline applies to the stock you’ve had on display or in exhibits.

Additionally, please keep guests away from your hamstery. Your well-earned pride in the size of your herd may cost you a good number of hamsters. 

Any hamster exposed to any human disease will eventually die. If you must demonstrate your hamsters, please keep the young stock hidden from the building and never the breeding stock.

With ordinary cold or virus illness, plenty of soap and water will help prevent the same sickness from entering the herd. To help with your look as the grim reaper’s helper, cover your mouth and nose with a gauze mask.

So long as cedar, in the form of shavings or sawdust, is approved as an insect repellent, adding a little quantity to the bedding is an effective and surely harmless method of using it.

Cedar shavings can be purchased practically anywhere. You will find the scent of cedar unpleasant to both hamsters and guests.

Most disinfectants are available nowadays. Some are decent; others simply have a strong odor. To get a good disinfection, it’s important to follow this formula. This disinfectant works due of its cleansing properties.

To prepare a stock solution, use nine ounces of caustic soda. Use lye water to dissolve the glass. Slowly pour one and a half gallons of a five percent solution of sodium hypochlorite into this lye solution. while stirring fast addition of lye can lead to severe reaction To disinfect four gallons of water at a reduced cost, use a quart of this solution. This disinfecting tank solution may be applied.

Deodorant For those who would like a formula for a good deodorant, the following will meet all requirements :

  • One ounce of Pinus Sylvestris L.
  • One ounce of Oil Cedar Compound
  • Four ounces of Medicinal Soft Soap

Thirty-two ounces of water This solution can be diluted with equal parts of water and maybe sprayed or brushed wherever wanted. It is not harmful to hamsters.

Causes Of Death In Hamsters

This chapter will discuss the common reasons of death for hamsters. There may be diseases unique to hamsters, but as things stand, we accept facts as they are.

Large-scale hamster breeders openly confess that mortality is of little concern to them, and when hamsters die other than from old age, it is almost always due of the breeder’s mistakes rather than the animal’s.

Cage paralysis can occur under any of the above circumstances. A huge cage cannot prevent paralysis as effectively as a small cage.

Cages with all-smooth walls are not ideal. Some wire should be provided in which the hamster may freely run. The animal will spend much of his time digging in the sawdust or something similar, and transporting it from one end of the cage to the other.

Paralysis may first manifest itself as an animal’s inactivity. A little later, the hamster can’t raise its head and when it does, it crawls with its nose on the ground. Putting the hamster out of his agony is usually too late.

Falls Hams often tumble out of their cages if the door is left open. When a hamster is small, it will jump from a person’s hand.

The hamster’s death is always the consequence of a fall from any height onto a hard surface.

If one of your hamsters falls and looks to be dead, wait for about half an hour, then restore him to his cage.

Sometimes a fall “knocks the wind out of him,” so to speak, and if he is allowed to rest, he will be rushing around as though nothing had occurred soon after. After one-half hour, the hamster has to be dead.

Animal – Birth Death can occur when it is time for the female to give birth to her young.  This is related, in part, to a bone structural problem in females. Rarely will a runt female birth her young.

Her gestation duration is shorter when there are good conditions. Malformations are evident until death occurs. This is one of nature’s slaw of the “survival of the fittest.”


Broken teeth kill many hamsters. Fighting or chewing on the cage’s wire front can both break a hamster teeth. A damaged tooth will prevent eating, and the animal will die of starvation.

If an animal appears “off his feed,” get him inspected to discover if his teeth have been damaged. It is essential that the broken tooth be properly trimmed and that the animal is fed a soft diet, such as bread and milk until the teeth have grown to their correct length.

In other cases, the top and lower teeth do not meet properly, instead of wearing down, and grow longer until the hamster is unable to eat. Breeding hamsters with this illness should be avoided.

To help keep his teeth at the correct length, a little block of wood should be placed in the cage for the hamster to bite on.

Fighting usually results in the death of one or both hamsters. The female frequently kills the male when she puts him in the breeding cage since she is not in heat and he is little.

This does not contradict earlier statements which claim, “fighting is rarely serious.” All studs should be larger than the female for breeding. Middle-aged men kill each other. All those chemicals will only harm each other.

Typically, breeding-age females get along with each other. When hamsters fight, their injuries should be treated with iodine or other disinfectants to prevent infection. However, hamsters treat their wounds by licking them.

Dehydration Look at the water supply if a hamster looks to be losing weight. A lack of moisture is possible if the green feed is fed for water for feeding hamsters.

At times the drinking tubes will stop working and the hamster will be without water even if the water bottle is full. All bottles and tubes should be examined daily to determine if they are working.

Hamsters are extremely little-known about their diet and nutrition requirements. Feed manufacturers are a valuable resource when you suspect your feed is lacking. When the feed’s protein level is increased, cannibalism normally stops immediately.

How To Tame And Teach Your Hamster Tricks?

Here we described how to raise a hamster the right way, but if you have a tame hamster, you should also be able to manage it.

Hamsters are inherently tame and trustworthy. To keep them such, the hamsters must be handled frequently.

Once familiarized, males will always be tame, but not so much so during pregnancy.

If you want to have a tame adult, you should handle young babies daily.

During this time, they are so hyperactive that teaching them any tricks would be fruitless.

Older hamsters can be tamed, too. Use a cage large enough for the animal to scamper away from your hand as you enter.

Allow the hamster to walk up to the cage and swing down slowly so that you can follow it from above.

Pet the animal, using your entire hand. do this every time you feed it Then have it walk over your hand, stroking it with your other hand. To keep the hamster from falling, we perform these baby steps gradually.

Once you’ve tamed your hamster, what about teaching your hamster tricks?  You can expect the hamster to learn simple things, but not complex ones.

For instance, if you hold up a hamster on the palm of your hand, it will not sit up. instead, it will glance down.

But this same hamster can be taught to sit up in the same situation. Train it to sit still on your hand and then hold something to eat above its head. 

You must, of course, repeat these things many times. But soon you will see that hamster sitting up as soon as it finds itself on your hand, simply waiting for something to eat. 

The trick to teaching tricks lies in your patience and the animal’s spontaneous reactions from habit. 

We would not like to set a limit on what the hamster can learn, for this is largely dependent on its master. Some hamsters have learned much more than one would expect because of the gentle, patient persistence of their masters.