The bodies of both the American and European common goldfishes are elongated and somewhat flattened on the sides, with the latter being significantly longer.

The scaleless head is generally short, with a large forehead and wide inter-orbital space, a blunt snout, full and well-defined lips, upright nostrils, bright eyes, and a burnished metallic sheen on the operculum or gill covers. The body has a uniformly distributed

More or less fixed varieties can be produced through careful breeding, but none of these forms are permanent, as the goldfish is naturally prone to variations under domestication or will revert to the original stock except under the most careful breeding and selection, and what may be considered imperfections in some breeds are desired characteristics in others, as can be seen in the descriptions of the oriental goldfishes.

The better breeds, with the exception of the Comet, should have extremely short heads, short bodies, uniformly rounded backs, long pendant fins, tiny scales, and big eyes.

The Japanese And Chinese Goldfishes

For generations, highly bred goldfishes have been cultured in the warmer areas of Japan and China, and all of the types presently recognized in the United States are descended from these sources.

The original parent stock was a Cyprinoid, similar to the Crucian carp, with albinoid fishes of all species being brilliant orange and golden in color, with white or uncoloured individuals on occasion.

These colours were rendered permanent in the goldfish via rigorous selection, however Oriental breeders did not limit themselves to these established combinations, embracing any shade and color combination.

Variations in body and head, as well as differences in eye, fin, and scale, were cultivated to such a degree that they produced all of the odd variations and nearly unbelievable monstrosities that may be bred in all domesticated animals.

The Japanese Comet Goldfish

This variation was created by crossing the regular goldfish with the Japanese Fringetail or with fishes derived from this stock.

A tall and narrow head with a pointed snout, upright nostrils, thin lips, and flat eyes; tiny uniform scales, long and erect dorsal and long pendant pectoral, ventral, and anal fins.

The pectorals and ventrals are paired, but the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins are single, resulting in an extremely thin, flat-sided, and long-drawn fish, as the well-applied name suggests. The colors are those of a regular goldfish.

The Comet is a highly attractive, delicate, and tiny fish that is very hardy and easy to breed; it is the personification of elegance and speed of movement.

Nose and Hog’s nose scaled and scaleless (transparently-scaled) Comets with either full, wide tails or tails that are significantly bifurcated and spread, the most desired and difficult to get being scaleless sharp-nosed Comets.

Comets with a deep oxblood red body and white fins, as well as exceptionally long pendant lower fins, erect dorsals, and widely spread single tails, either full or bifurcated, held straight out behind and far longer than the fish’s body.

These fetch great premiums and stand out against other highly bred goldfishes.

The Japanese Fringe Tail Goldfish

No other variety has so fully repaid the breeder’s efforts as this beautiful specimen obtained via meticulous selections along the lines of beauty, symmetry, grace, and color elegance.

Patient, discerning work over thousands of generations has resulted in the most beautiful of all goldfishes, the flawless Fringetail.

This justly appreciated fish exemplifies the long, lace-like fins and tail, the rich burnished metallic brilliance, the wonderful brilliancy of color, the beautifully moulded form, and the perfection of elegant movement.

The entire development of the species beauty is only reached at maturity; nevertheless, the fancier can identify in very young fishes those that show promise of future perfect development.

The fine mature Fringetail is a small-scaled, short-bodied and short-headed fish with evenly rounded sides, all the very long pendant fins paired except the long, wavy and lace-like dorsal; and an enormous delicate drooping double tail divided quite to the base and floating behind the body like a great mass of most dainty lace; much longer than the fish’s body.

The two distinct tails are identical in terms of conformation, length, droop, and texture.

By crossing with Chinese transparently scaled fishes, American breeders have produced a larger black-eyed transparently scaled fish that is more attractive than the Japanese Fringetail; it has all of the characteristics of the imported fish.

But is more delicate and dainty in fin and tail development and more pronounced in color.

The fully developed stately appearance of the fully developed stately appearance of the fully developed stately appearance of the fully developed stately appearance of the fully developed stately.

The most elegant, majestic, and fairy-like fringe tails; the gorgeous tail, drifting behind and following every movement, is carried as if the fish were proud of its nearly royal look.

The Japanese Fantail Goldfish

This lovely fish has certain unique features that set it apart from the ringtail, while bearing a strong similarity in many ways.

These differences, which are acknowledged by fanciers.

The Japanese breeders developed distinct differences in the conformation of the body and fins, which are very visible in finely bred specimens, though these are less common than is commonly assumed, as most goldfishes known as Fantails are usually Fringe tails with either short or imperfectly developed tails; or web-tailed Japanese fishes.

The Fantail is a scaled short-bodied fish that is very thick, round-backed, and deep-bellied, with an almost oval outline.

Its body is best described as a short pumpkin seed form, with the horizontal longer diameter of slightly greater length than a true oval, and so formed that an imaginary line drawn from the upper lip to the base of the tail would show the upper and lower halves of the body of almost the same conformation.

It has a short, wide head with a prominent hognose, a big mouth with thick lips, upright nostrils, and eyes similar to but larger than regular goldfish.

The long and erect dorsal fin sits far back on the spine, with all other fins being paired.

The pectorals and ventrals are long and pendant, the double anal fins are long and extend almost straight backward, while the broad double tail, which is the fish’s main feature, is divided almost to the base, and the two distinct tails stand directly vertical on the same plane and are carried straight.

This is never the case with an imperfectly developed Fringetail; the upper lobes are always the longest, and the relative position of the double tail is not directly vertical or parallel to each other, but at a determined angle when viewed from behind, whereas the perfectly developed Fantail appears to have two separate single tails placed side by side.

The Fantails tail is never longer than its body. The colours are identical to those of the Fringetail, but the scales are bigger and typically finer; there are no clearly scaled individuals, either pure or crossed stock, in this variation. It is a typically attractive fish, albeit not as “showy” as the Fringetail.

The Japanese Nymph Goldfish

There are always those individuals who partially revert to the original type in all finely bred domesticated animals.

This is common in goldfish, since many of the children of the best strains have traits that distinguish them from their parents and identify the type from which the breed was formed.

The nymph goldfish, whose name suggests some such idea on the part of the breeders, is an example of this. It is currently recognized as a separate variety and maybe bred by crossing the Comet with the Fringetail, although it is more commonly generated unintentionally from Fringetail stock; this is regarded as a “sport” in breeder jargon.

The best examples combine all of the Fringetails features with a single Comet-like tail. Fine Nymph examples are particularly attractive, with long hanging pectoral and ventral fins.

A very high dorsal and a straight single anal fin; a delicate, extremely long single tail; and the Fringetail’s head, eyes, thin scales, overall conformation, and rich glossy colors.

The body is shorter, wider, and fuller than the Comet, with those with almost circular flat-sided bodies being the most coveted.

They provide an appealing contrast to the other good breeds in the aquarium and have a distinct personality that justifies their classification as a separate variety.

Other fanciers still see them as single-tailed Fringe tails, but the general consensus is that these fish should be classified as Nymphs, with the most common having short flat-sided bodies and straight Comet-like tails, however some nymphs have tails that are so long that they must droop.

These are considered a distinct species and are just as valuable as straight-tailed fishes. They can be scaled or transparently scaled.

The Lion-Headed Japanese Hooded Goldfish

The shape, scales, fins, and color of this unusual Japanese or Korean goldfish are similar to those of the Fringetail.

But the dorsal fin is missing; the distinguishing feature is a strange growth on and across the sides of the head. encircling the orbits, giving the fish’s head the appearance of a “Owl” breed of pigeon, topped with a hoodlike excrescence of brilliant pink or red hue.

This papillomatous growth is made up of spherical tubercles approximately the size of a pinhead that are uniformly spaced and completely cover the head.

Fine examples have pearl-white sides with occasional regularly placed single bright red scales; some are golden in hue, but all have the distinctive crimson papillae on and over the head.

Anal fins are missing from a few excellent specimens on occasion.

In writing about the “Korean breed,” also known as the “Maruko” or “Ranchiu,” which is currently mostly bred in Japan.

The dorsal fin is missing, and the head is unique of this species in that it has rough-looking skin protuberances that can grow to be quite large and long.

The Paradise Goldfish Or The Japanese Barnacled

This extremely unusual Japanese goldfish has a telescope-like body and fin development, with big tubular eyes pointing forward; a reduced head and long snout, relatively large paired fins, and a double tail. Wart-like growths, known as papillae, cover the skin.

The scales are irregularly imbricated, giving the impression that they are dispersed, similar to mirror carp scales, yet covering the entire body of the fish.

The unusual look of these fish caused American breeders to believe they were sick, but they were subsequently identified as a variation of the Japanese Telescope, with the distinguishing feature being the scale development.

The colours are a mottled red and white, with black and white fins and a white tail.

The Chinese Telescope Goldfishes

This unusual Chinese breed is also produced in Japan, where the Chinese. 

The head and snout are significantly reduced; the body is rounded and egg-shaped; the dorsal fin is erect and situated far back on the spine; all lower fins are paired; and the double tail is split at the base and carried straight out at a downward angle.

The main feature, as the name suggests, is the growth of protruding eyeballs.

which have the appearance of spheres, ovoids, truncated cones, or segmented spheres placed upon the sides of the head, with the eyes nearly entirely projecting from the orbits and the cornea constituting a section of a considerably smaller sphere than the eyeball proper.

Because of this quirk, the front part of the eye is more sharp than the bigger posterior area. The iris is also noticeably out Honed.

Fanciers like the orientals’ unique colourings, in addition to their strangely formed body, projecting eyes, and distinctive tail droop.

The dominant colours of the scaled Japanese fish are those of the common goldfish, although they are strangely arranged.

Certain fishes have clear golden-red bodies with jet black backs and fins, and black eyeballs; others have white bodies and deep-red fins and red eyeballs with black irides; still others have red or golden-yellow bodies and white fins with red, white, and black eyes; and still others have pearly-white bodies and fins mottled with red, and red and black eyes, though none of these colourations are required.

The Chinese Mottled Goldfish

This Telescope type is often called as the Calico, which aptly describes its amazing markings.

The body is short and thick; the spine has a distinct backward curve; the snout is shaped to give the short head a pugnacious appearance; the mouth is almost vertically placed at the front of the head; the lips are distinct; the nostrils are small but erect; and the eyes are large and usually disc-like or tubular.

The dorsal fin is high and short; all of the lower fins are paired, long and extremely broad; the tail is double, with two distinct tails held at an angle to each other, straight, drooping, and at an angle with the body.

Its patterns are unusual, consisting of irregular blotches of various colors and shapes scattered at random throughout the whole fish, including the body, fins, and tail.

It is so clearly scaled that the flesh colours, which are frequently of a noticeable bluish hue, can be seen through the skin, on which the red, yellow, brown, blue, and black mottling stands out most prominently. This is a beautiful, unusual, and highly valued fish.

Chinese Fringetail Telescope Goldfish

This type has the same body, eyes, and fin development as the Calico, but its markings are different.

The translucent scales are undetectable, and the colours are strangely dispersed across the head and body in areas of gorgeous oxblood red, white, and blue hues.

The long, delicate, filmy, lace-like fins and the stunning long double tail are often white.

Sometimes the fish is almost or totally white, with delicate pink and blue tones, and so translucent that practically all of the internal organs and bones are visible, creating a highly intriguing, unusual, and tiny Transparent Fringe tail Telescope Goldfish.

These fish are produced from imported fish and are descended from the same parent stock as the Mottled Telescope. Some young Mottled Telescopes display this trait and are widely loved, not only for their gorgeous colours, but also for their spheroidal eyes, which are generally deep blue in hue.

The Chinese Fringetail Telescopes have the most beautiful fins and tails, which are so tiny and lace-like that they appear too fragile to perform their purposes. These are as long and as pendant as the best Fringe tails.

The Chinese Moor Telescope Goldfish

This beautiful species, known as the Moor or Black Telescope, is extremely uncommon and well-deservedly valuable.

It has the same overall conformation as the Chinese Telescope, but its fins and tail are generally longer.

The distinctive coloration is permanent in purely bred fishes and consists of an even covering over the entire fish, including the eyes, fins, and tail, of a wonderfully rich bluish-black hue, so delicate and even in tone that it appears as though the entire fish were covered in the richest blue-black velvet, the magnificent sheen of which is such that one could expect to feel the very texture of the fish.

However, the black hue is not permanent in many of the American-bred Moors.

The Moor is always a scaled fish, however the scales are generally undetectable owing to the extremely black hue.

Sometimes, in fish bred from Japanese stock, the colours are black on the back and sides, with a delicate bluish or reddish-bronze tone on the abdomen, and these scales appear to be outlined in golden bronze.

which are white on the underside of the body, between the fins, are more likely to retain their black color than those which are yellow.

No fish is more attractive in the aquarium than a magnificent Moor, whose lovely form and color not only contrast with the other fishes but also draw attention to their dazzling colours.

The Chinese Piebald Or Tiger Telescope Goldfish

This fish has an unusual look, both in shape and markings.

The tubular eyes are extremely developed, frequently reaching beyond the snout, being oriented sideways, and protruding 4 to 6 inches from the orbits.

The fish would seem virtually triangular in transverse section, with the flattened abdomen serving as the foundation.

The body is short, thick, and malformed, lacking fins and a tail, and the unusual markings, from which the fish gets its name, are the pink and blue tones of the flesh beneath the transparent scales, overlaid with streaks and patches of black, dark brown, red, and dusky grey on the back, sides, and fins, with a lemon-yellow abdomen.

The Chinese Lettered Telescope Goldfish

Another example of the Chinese’s painstaking labours in generating desired features in goldfish may be seen in the Lettered Telescope, a very uncommon fish.

The shape and growth of the eyes are similar to that of the Tiger Telescope, however the body is more rounded and not as trapezoidal in section.

The eyes are distinctively tubular and pointed forward with a small upward trend on each side of the snout, and the cornea is likewise oriented forward with a minor upward trend.

The head and snout are extremely small, the body is thick and about as wide as it is tall, the fins and double tail are highly developed, and the pectorals and ventrals reach practically straight out at the sides of the fish.

The anal fin is double, as is the tail, which is wide and split at the base. In swimming, the anal fins are employed in the same way that the ventrals are.

The colours and patterns of this fish are its most distinguishing feature.

The transparently scaled body is dark olive-green on the back, citron-yellow on the sides, and yellowish-white under the belly, with brown patterns that resemble sepia-written Chinese characters.

The Chinese Blue Telescope Goldfish

The fish is characterized as a scaled Telescope, with a silvery belly flushed with rose pink, a deep azure blue on the back and flanks, with a metallic sheen throughout.

Those observed or owned by the author had transparent scales, a velvety, ultramarine blue back, reddish-blue translucent lower sides, and a blue-white or greyish belly, with a dark bluish-brown or black dorsal fin, white or grey lower fins, and a dusky-grey or brownish double tail.

The eyes are prominent and blue in hue, with the overall color tone being bluish and bluish brown with local tones of pinkish blue and bluish-white.

This is a stunning Chinese goldfish that is well praised.  The colours are best appreciated when the fish is displayed in direct sunlight beside beautifully coloured goldfishes.

The Chinese Celestial Telescope Goldfish

The Celestial Telescope or Stargazer is the most intriguing of the carefully bred Oriental goldfishes. The snout of this fish is exceedingly short.

has huge spheroidal projecting eyes with extremely tiny irides that are oriented upward above the head, such that the fish’s sight is always directed to the surface Its vision is severely impaired.

The scales are imbricated equally over the back and sides. The body is egg-shaped, tapering dramatically at the tail.

To preserve the fish’s equilibrium, the fins are large and hanging, and the tail is held at a little downward inclination and very widely spread. It moves at a snail’s pace.

Because of its constant upward look, the fish has developed the habit of holding its body at an angle, with the snout and eyes generally being the highest points of the plane.

The Celestial Telescope is the most difficult of the imported goldfishes to raise or keep alive in an aquarium.

The Chinese Eggfish

It is characterized as having a perfect egg-shaped body, extremely uniformly convexed and rounded on all sides, from the head to the base of the tail; and flat eyes, similar to those of the Fringetail, that seldom incline to the telescopic.

The dorsal and anal fins are missing, but the pectoral and ventral fins are normal, and the slender double tail droops downward from the back.

White fish are highly valued and regarded to be the most perfect and preferred to mottled or red fishes, since they more nearly deserve the description of Egg fish.

The Chinese Tumbler Goldfish

The curvature of the spine, the growth and location of the pectoral, ventral, and dorsal fins; the huge anal fin; and the unusual double tail throw this fish off balance, forcing it to proceed through a series of backward somersaults, similar to the gyrations of the Tumbler pigeon.

It is described as a scaled, telescopic-eyed blue fish with an orange flush.

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